HOW TO SPOT SIGNS OF ANXIETY IN YOUR CHILD
By Ellie Barker
I recently received an email from my child’s school, inviting me to an event called: How to manage anxiety disorders in children.
When I asked Professor Cathy Creswell, a Clinical Advisor to Anxiety UK if it surprised her parents were being taught how to recognise symptoms of anxiety in children under 10 (covering eating disorders, panic attacks and compulsive disorders), she answered “no.”
She went on to say: “In fact, this is a really good thing. Anxiety and stress disorders are the most common type of emotional difficulty experienced across a lifespan, and we know that they have a particularly early onset with half of all people who have serious difficulties with anxiety first having those problems by the age of 11.
Despite this, we have found in recent studies that a very small proportion of children who have problems with anxiety and their families receive any support, which is a terrible shame.”
But are there signs that as a society we are putting too much pressure on our children - parents and school included?
“This is a tricky question as although the perception is often anxiety in children is becoming more common, we don’t have the data in the UK to properly test this.
In 2018, a national survey of mental health in children and young people was repeated for the first time since 2004, so soon we will be in a better position to see if anxiety in children is on the increase and if so why.
However we must remember we are getting much better at spotting an anxious child, which is also a good thing. We work with many parents and carers who tell us that they or other family members were anxious children in the past and it was never recognised or acted upon.”
But with the endless amount of clubs and after-school activities, plus the pressure of SATS tests bubbling away on the classroom sidelines, surely it is important that kids are just allowed to ‘play?’
Professor Creswell says “It certainly fits with our understanding of anxiety to assume if children are in environments that instil a fear of failure then we will see increases in difficulties particularly among those children prone to anxiety.“
What are the signs of anxiety in children?
Everyone experiences fear, worry or anxiety sometimes, but according to Professor Creswell, this is not necessarily anything to worry about. It can in some circumstances be helpful.
But it becomes a problem when it is out of proportion to what is going on and interferes with everyday life.
Children with separation anxiety are typically concerned that something will happen to themselves or one or more of their parents/carers if they are not together.
This can show itself through clinginess and difficulty separating to go to school or to a friend’s house. The child may become tearful or have a tantrum.
Children with social anxiety disorder are normally worried about being evaluated in a negative way by others. They may worry that people think they are stupid or might do something others will laugh at.
It can show itself through fears in speaking, eating or taking part in activities when certain people are present.
In children, stress is often communicated physically - psychosomatic reactions, including stomach problems, headaches, fatigue, sleep disorders, and problems with going to the toilet, may be signals that something is wrong.
Sudden changes in behaviour can also be a signal.
The book Giving Sorrow Words notes: “When a good student starts getting Fs, that deserves attention, and the same is true when a child who was previously a troublemaker turns into an angel.”
“Children who come home saying ‘Nobody likes me’ really are telling you that they don’t like themselves,” says Dr Loraine Stern. The same might be true when a child suddenly starts bragging or exaggerating accomplishments.
Though seemingly expressing the opposite of low self-esteem, boasting about real or imagined accomplishments may be an effort to overcome deep feelings of inadequacy.
Of course, all kids get sick, occasionally misbehave and experience periodic disappointment with themselves, but when you start to notice a pattern and no immediate cause is evident, you should weigh the meaning of the signals.
So what are Professor Creswell’s tips for helping a child with anxiety?
A lot of parents worry that by speaking to their child about anxiety they may make it worse. The important thing is to think not about ‘whether’ you talk about it but ‘how’ you talk about it.
When you are talking about fears, be curious. Try to understand them. What do they think will happen and why? Some children may not be able to say exactly what they are worried about beyond that they feel scared and get upset.
But that’s ok. You can work with that. Acknowledge your child’s thoughts and feelings and show you appreciate how hard it must be.
To overcome their fears they will need to put them to the test. What can they/you do to find out if what they fear will really happen?
For example if s/he is worried they will be taken if you are not there, could they try to be apart from you in a different part of the house for a short period of time?
Enlist others around you to help. If the difficulties are at school, speak to staff to make sure there is a teaching assistant or other adult who can get your child busy and involved in an engaging and important job on arrival.
Plan realistic rewards to help motivate your child.
Make sure your child knows how proud and impressed you are that they have put their fears to the test.
Researchers at Loyola University of Chicago, USA, studied 400 children age 9 to 13 years old, from wide-ranging backgrounds and looked at how they coped with stress.
Among the 50% who routinely handled difficult situations well, the researchers found three common characteristics, according to American Health magazine:
they were willing to ask for help, share their concerns, and seek emotional support from an adult—often, but not always, a parent
they tended to take responsibility for their own behaviour and sought to influence their peers to avoid harm
they sought out quiet time or recreation to relieve stress.
Conversely, the researchers found three tendencies that reduced children’s resiliency:
resorting to aggression
self-destructive behaviour such as drug abuse
avoiding problems rather than dealing with them
Some temporary relief may come from helping children to relax, going for a walk, changing routine or environment, or listening to soothing music.
Make sure your child gets enough sleep. Set regular times to go to bed and to get up, at least on school days and workdays.
Allow them enough time to unwind before bed. Avoid exercise (so no late night trips to the park) within three hours before going to bed, and avoid heavy snacks and caffeine close to bedtime.
When it’s time to go to bed, try to make the bedroom dark, quiet, and comfortable.
Let your child know that the feelings they have can be reduced; anxiety is treatable. Let them know that speaking about how they feel reduce feelings of anxiety and stress. It may also help them to realise that they are not alone in how they are feeling.
Sociologist Ronald L. Pitzer says: “All too often, efforts by children and teens to communicate intense feelings are minimised, denied, rationalised, or ignored by parents.”
Reassure your child that you understand, that you will never laugh or dismiss their feelings; can you give them an example of when you felt similarly?
Avoid language like:
“Stop your crying”
“You shouldn’t feel that way.”
“It isn’t really that bad.”
Could you instead say: “I see that something has made you sad.” “You look really upset.” “I know you must be disappointed.”
The book 'How to Talk so Kids Will Listen & Listen so Kids Will Talk' makes a valid observation in this regard: “The more you try to push a child’s unhappy feelings away, the more he becomes stuck in them.
The more comfortably you can accept the bad feelings, the easier it is for kids to let go of them. I guess you could say that if you want to have a happy family, you’d better be prepared to permit the expression of a lot of unhappiness.”
If they find it hard to talk, could they write a letter about their feelings instead? Or if they’re still young, draw pictures to illustrate how they feel?
What example do you as parent set when it comes to stress and anxiety?
Do you try to reduce stress by resorting to violence? Punching the wall? Grabbing a glass (or 3) of wine? Then do not be surprised when your child acts out his anxiety in a similar way.
Do you suffer in silence when deeply disturbed? If so, how can you demand that your child be open and trusting?
Are stressful feelings so hidden in your household that they are denied rather than acknowledged and worked out?
Then do not be startled by the physical and emotional toll it may take on your child, for any attempt to bury anxiety will normally only increase the severity of its expression.
A 2019 UK study found that as many as 66% of mums and dads claim their child regularly feels anxious about lessons, homework - and social aspects such as bullying and friendships.
Almost 30% of the parents who took part in the study said learning how to manage their child’s anxiety is now more important to them than their academic success, with 63% saying it as just as important.
To combat school stress, 56% of parents now practice mindfulness with their child at home, to try and ease their mind about the daily stresses and strains.
Mindfulness is known to promote good mental wellbeing and help children cope with difficulties whilst also encouraging them to better manage the academic demands placed on them.
British author and mental campaigner Jonny Benjamin, whose own mental health issues started at the age of 10, said:
“It’s so important for young children to recognise feelings of anxiety, be able to speak openly about how they are feeling, and learn how to handle them.
"Learning about one’s mind and emotional regulation are invaluable skills that can’t be taught early enough..
“Mindfulness has been life-changing for me and I'd encourage as many primary school children as possible to take part. I know of so many people, both young and old, who really benefit from mindful breathing and relaxation techniques.
It may be that trying to reduce their anxiety by undertaking certain activities on your own initiative may not be enough to help your child with their anxiety and you may need to access professional help.
Speak to your child’s school or Dr to discuss having access to local counselling services.
If your child thinks about or actually attempts suicide, “Seek immediate professional help,” urges the book Depression — What Families Should Know.
“Treating potential suicides is not a job for amateurs, even those who care about the depressed person a great deal. You may think you’ve talked your family member out of suicide when all he or she is doing is clamming up and keeping all the feelings inside until they explode with horrifying results.”
If you are worried about yourself or someone you know, please contact the below organisations:
Childline (for children and young people under 19_